THE IMPACT OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS AND THE GLOBALIZATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS: REFORMS AND CHALLENGES
Introduction. If we want to anticipate education in the future, it must be based on the past and the present of education. Methods. The literature review method was used for synthesizing and analyzing research findings. Results. The historical root of the concept of physical education (PE) R. Naul explains it with some important changes such as the early 1960s, first wave of Europeanization became visible; in mid‑1960s sport had become an integral part of the PE curriculum, that time started a real “Sportification” of the whole PE curriculum; in 1980/81 started the de‑construction of sport disciplines by general movement activities (e. g. running, jumping, throwing and non‑competitive games); 1980 was not only a decade of transition of the PE curriculum and concept of teaching PE, but it also known by the ’pop songs’ refrain “Teachers, leave your kids alone” it also characterized the change to de-schooling, de-education, de-sporting activities, de-moralization in PE and devaluation of former standards in PE; and the transition to an ’anything-goes-concept’ in PE, beginning in the 1990s. A Danish colleague Jorgensen has compared this process of transition of former PE concepts to a “supermarket”, where everyone may take what he/she wants for teaching PE. Then follows the dark decade of education in Southeast Europe specifically in the Western Balkans and the stagnation of education as a result of wars. And the last step in education reform is joining the Bologna process since 1999/2003. Discussion. This reform brought a lot of challenges and good things such as the exchange of knowledge and the mobility of students and teaching staff, but how many Balkan countries were able to accept such a reform and how accurate they were in implementing Bologna’s proposals is the result that many countries face today with this system and are wondering which system was the best the old or the current. Another important issue that has a great impact on the educational process in the Balkans is globalization and its effects. Among other things, migration and “brain drain“ are the two main factors that destabilize the educational process in general in the Balkans. As a result of migration, only Macedonia with 2 million inhabitants is damaged about 500 million € per year. For a better life, graduates for whom families and the state have invested also leave the country. The departure of young people from the country makes the number of students decrease, thus weakening the competition. In conclusion, various studies on the educational process in the Balkans show that these post‑conflict countries are not yet regenerated and that problems and defects of an illegal nature still dominate, and no matter how hard they try to keep up with the world education trend, they are far from it.
Keywords: Higher Education, Bologna Process, Globalization, Western Balkans.
Brajkovic, L. Higher Education in Western Balkans: Recent Trends and Challenges / Lucia Brajkovic // International Higher Education. – 2016. – No. 87. – P. 27–30.
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Naul R. Concepts of Physical Education in Europe [Electronic resource] / Roland Naul. – Access mode: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260096002_Concepts_of_Physical_Education_in_Europe
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